When France and Germany needed a new military transport aircraft to replace the Noratlas they joined forces, or better the manufacturers MBB, Aerospatiale, and VFW-Fokker. They formed the Transporter Allianz consortium, or Transall in short.
The C-160 which they designed is a high wing aircraft about the size of a Lockheed Hercules. Like the C-130 the C-160 has a large wingspan, an upsloped rear fuselage with loading ramp and a conventional tail. The vertical stabiliser has a slightly tapered rectangular shape, and a large dorsal fin in front. Under the wings hang two turboprop engines. These have ring shaped intakes (around the prop spinner) and an exhaust at the back of the nacelle.
The main gear consists of two sets of double wheels on each side, retracting in pods at the side of the fuselage. The nose gear has two wheels. There aren't as many cockpit windows as on contemporary aircraft, but still seven all around, without eyebrow or feet windows.
How to recognise the different versions of the Transall C-160 will be added later.
Confusion possible with
The Soviet/Russian counterpart of the C‑160 is the Antonov An-8, the two engined version of the An‑12. It has different cockpit windows and a glass nose. Also the tail has a trapezium shape like on the C-130 and An-12. (photo: Felix Goetting/WikiMedia)
The basic configuration and number of engines of the C-295 and C-160 are the same, but there are also many differences. The C-295 is smaller, has many cabin windows, a taller vertical stabiliser and two tandem main landing gear wheels, to name a few.
Comparable in size and appearance to the C-160 Hercules but obviously has four engines instead of two. Also has two big wheels on each main landing gear, in tandem configuration. Finally the tail has a trapezium shape and the cockpit many windows.
Both the An-12 and its Chinese copy are similar in size as the C-160, but have four engines. Also the tail is trapezoidal like on the C-130. The An-12 and Y-8 have four wheel bogeys on each leg and smaller pods for the gear.
The Y-9 is a four engined plane like the Y-8 above (and clearly derived from that), but has a nose that is more similar to that of the C-160 than the An‑12/Y‑8. (photo: Alert5/WikiMedia)