CASA-IPTN CN-235 & CASA C-295
The CN-235 was jointly developed by CASA of Spain and IPTN of Indonesia in the early 1980s, when a new generation of turboprop commuter aircraft saw light. Unlike the competitors the consortium (named Airtech International) focused on military customers, by giving the aircraft a rear loading ramp. Although relatively few aircraft were used for passenger transport, the aircraft was equipped with many cabin windows. The tandem main landing gear retracts in streamline bodies underneath the fuselage.
Later CASA alone made a stretched version, designated C-295. Both aircraft are now marketed by EADS/Airbus Military. However, Indonesian Aerospace maintains its own production line of the CN-235.
How to recognise the different versions of the CN-235 and C-295 will be added later.
Confusion possible with
Both in terms of looks and potential customers the C-27J (developed from the G222) is the main competitor of the CN‑235 and C‑295. The G222/C‑27J has far fewer cabin windows, but more cockpit windows - above the head and at the feet of the pilots - and is generally less slender than the C‑295. There is some space between the tandem main wheels.
Fairchild C-123 Provider
The C-123 Provider looks more like the G222 above but could still be confused with the CN‑235/C‑295. It has different cockpit windows though, including at the cockpit crew's feet. The few cabin windows are square, there are no streamline bodies for the gear and the dorsal fin is much bigger and with two steps. Finally, it has radial piston engines, sometimes complemented by two jet engines under the wings.
The C-160 has the same basic configuration, but is significantly bigger than the CN‑235 and C‑295. Also the C-160 has different cockpit windows, fewer cabin windows, a more square vertical tail and double wheels on the main landing gears.
The An-26 and An-32 are also high wing military transport aircraft with a rear loading ramp. However, both have long main landing gear legs retracting in the engine nacelles.