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Dassault Falcon 5X/6X
The Falcon 5X and 6X are Dassault's flagship models, about the size of a Global or Gulfstream. Its basic configuration is similar to that of the Falcon 2000, so with low swept wings and a cruciform tail. It has only four cockpit windows though, horizontal stabilisers with dihedral and smaller winglets.
The largest of the Dassault trijet family is the Falcon 7X/8X. Like the Falcon 900 it has multiple, small cabin windows. Additional recognition points are the four more streamlined cockpit windows, and the sawtooth in the trailing edge of the vertical stabiliser.
This corporate jet has the same typical Dassault tailplane configuration as the Falcon 50 and 7X/8X. The Falcon 900 has a wide fuselage and many, small cabin windows, but the six flat cockpit windows of the Falcon 50 are retained. The trailing edge of the vertical fin is straight.
Both the horizontal stabilisers and the wings have a significant dihedral, and together with the nearly oval vertical stabilisers at the tips of the horizontal stabilisers (H-tail) this makes the Flamant easily recognisable. The cain windows are round.
Given its slim engine nacelles you will most likely confuse the Mercure with the first generation Boeing 737. You can best distinguish the Dassault Mercure by its cockpit windows (last one is almost triangular) and engines nacelles, which are on a pylon under the wings, not directly put under the wings.
The Mirage 2000 is a further development of the Mirage III and Mirage V. Look in particular at the vertical stabiliser and cockpit to keep them apart. On the 2000 both are higher than on the predecessors, especially the single seat variants.
Dassault Mirage 4000
The Mirage 4000 is essentially a bigger, twin jet version of the Mirage 2000 with small canards at the air intakes. Additionally, it has a longer, true bubble canopy. (photo Michael Teiten/WikiMedia)
Dassault Mirage F1
The Mirage F1 is the only Mirage without a delta wing, but still has a lot of commonalities with the Mirage III and Mirage V. In particular the fuselage shape (including cockpit and air intakes) and the vertical stabiliser are typical Mirage.
Dassault Mirage III/Mirage 5 & IAI Finger/Nesher
The first generation Mirage delta wing fighters have the characteristic semi-circular air intakes in front of the wings, with semi-circular inlet cones. The vertical stabiliser is a cut-off triangle and the canopy is nearly flush with the top of the fuselage.
The air intakes of the Rafale are nearly elliptical, and placed diagonally at the side of the curved forward fuselage in front of the wings. This makes it stand apart from for example the (single engine) Saab Gripen and Eurofighter Typhoon, which also have delta wings, a single vertical stabiliser and canard configuration.